Catfish is one of the Fresh-water fish species that have been commercially cultivated by the people of Indonesia especially in Java. Catfish aquaculture developed rapidly due to
1) can be cultivated on land and limited water resources with high stocking density,
2) relatively easy cultivation technology controlled by society,
3) marketing is relatively easy and
4) the venture capital required is relatively low
development fish cultivation catfish has increased after the entry of African catfish species of fish to Indonesia in 1985. African catfish catfish superiority over the local among others, grow faster, the number of eggs more and more resistant to such penyakit.Namun cultivation of rapid growth without the support of good management of the parent causing decreased quality of African catfish. This is because of marriage sekerabat (inbreeding), selection of one parent over the use of low-quality parent. This degradation can be observed from the general character of the first ripe gonads, egg hatching, daily growth, resistance to disease and the FCR (Feeding Conversion Rate). In an effort to improve the quality of African catfish fish BBAT Sukabumi has succeeded in taking genetic engineering to produce the African catfish new strains of catfish named “Sangkuriang”. As with previous African catfish biology, catfish Sangkuriang quite omnivorous. In the natural environment or culture, he can take advantage of plankton, worms, insects, small shrimps and molluscs as food. For the cultivation, use of commercial feed (pellets) is recommended because a major impact on improving efficiency and making produktivitas.Tujuan Technical Guidelines is to provide ways and techniques of African catfish strains pisciculture Sangkuriang conducted in order to improve fisheries production to increase the availability of animal protein and fish consumption rates for the Indonesian people. Based on the results of African catfish excellence and quality improvement of existing mains supply in BBAT Sukabumi, the African catfish is feasible to be used as the basis of which parent the parent is released by the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries and has been disseminated to institutions / farmers in need. Parent African catfish result of these improvements, given the name “Catfish Sangkuriang”. Parent Sangkuriang catfish is the result of genetic improvement through backcross between second-generation female parent (F2) with male parental sixth generation (F6). F2 female parent is the collections of the Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Sukabumi derived from descendants of both African catfish introduced to Indonesia in 1985. While the male parent F6 is the parent stocks in Sukabumi Freshwater Aquaculture Center. Parent disseminated base resulting from the backcross between the female parent the second stage the second generation (F2) with male parental backcross results of the first stage (F2 6). Sangkuriang Catfish Farming can be done in areas with a height of 1 m – 800 m dpi. Terms of locations, both land and water quality is not too specific, meaning that with the use of appropriate technology, especially the cultivation of water temperature settings, can still be done on land that has a height above the> 800 m dpi. However, when cultivation was developed in a mass scale must consider the spatial and social environment surrounding farming areas means that developed in line with Government policy made setempat.Budidaya catfish, both hatchery and rearing activities can be performed in ground pool, bath tub wall or plastic. Cultivation in the tub walls and plastic tub can take advantage of their yards or marginal lands lainnya.Sumber can use the flow of irrigation water, water sumu (surface water or deep well), or rain water has been conditioned yan first. Yan water quality parameters for both maintenance sangkuriang catfish are as follows: a. The ideal water temperature for the growth of catfish ranged between 22-32c. Water temperature affects growth rate, metabolic rate of fish and fish appetite and the solubility of oxygen in the water. b. The ideal pH of water ranges from 6-9. c. Oxygen dissolved in water must be> 1 mg / l. Raising catfish Sangkuriang can be done in a plastic tub, bathtub wall or ground pool. In catfish farming in ponds that need to be considered is the manufacture of pool, creation of income and expenditure air.Bentuk door pool that is ideal for maintenance of catfish is a rectangle with the size of 100-500 m2. The depth of the pool ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 m with a slope of a pool of water to the disposal income of 0.5%. In the middle of the pond made ditch (kamalir) which extends from the entry of water into water expenditure (monik). The trench is made as wide as 30-50 cm with a depth of 10-15 cm.Sebaiknya door income and expenditure of water is between 15-20 cm. Door expenditure can be monik or siphon. Monik made of cement or wall consisted of two parts, box and pipe expenditure. In the box is installed insulation board composed of two layers that are filled with soil and a layer of filter. High water board adjusted to the desired height. While spending more water in the form of a simple siphon, which only consists of pipes attached paralon based pond below the embankment with the help of the pipe-shaped “L” protruding upward in accordance with kolam.Saringan water level can be mounted on the door of the income and expenditure for the fish do not there is an escape exit / masuk.Pelaksanaan BudidayaSebelum seed sown in catfish rearing ponds, which take into account is about the readiness of the pool includes: a. Preparation of pond soil (traditional)
Processing bottom of the pool that consists of ground-breaking or land piracy bottom of the pond and flattening. Pool wall amplified by hitting hit her with wooden beams for hard and dense so that no leakage occurred. Pemopokan dike to pond soil (cover the parts of a pool that is leaking).
To shelter the fish (catfish seed) as well as facilitate the harvesting of the created trench / kamalir and pools (tanks for harvesting).
Provide lime into the pond which aims to eradicate pests, diseases and improve soil quality. The recommended dose is 20-200 g/m2, depending on the acidity of the pond. For ponds with low pH can be given more lime, also vice versa if the soil is good enough, giving lime can be done simply to eradicate the possibility of pests found in the pond.
Fertilization with chicken manure, ranged between 500-700 g/m2; urea 15 g/m2; SP3 10 g/m2; NH4N03 15 g/m2.
At the door of the income and expenditure mounted water filter
Then do the water filling the pool.
Swimming allowed for 7 (seven) days, in order to provide opportunities growing natural food.
b. Preparation of pool wall
Preparation swimming pool wall similar to the soil. The difference is, on the pool wall is not done the basic processing pool, repairing trenches and tanks to harvest, because the trenches and tanks to harvest usually been made permanent.
c. Spreading Seeds
Before the seeds sown the seeds should be consecrated hamakan first by soaking in solution KM5N04 (potassium permanganate) or PK with a dose of 35 g/m2 for 24 hours or formalin at a dose of 25 mg / l for 5-10 minutes.
Stocking should be done in the morning or late afternoon or when air is not hot. Before sown into the pond, once acclimatized seed (treatment temperature adjustment) by entering the pool water bit by bit into the seed container carrier. The seeds are already teraklimatisasi will by itself out of the bag (container) transport the seeds towards a new environment that is swimming. This means that the treatment was carried out over the surface of the water pool where the container (bag) of seeds float in water. Total stocked seed 35-50 ekor/m2 measuring 5-8 cm.
In addition to natural foods, to accelerate the growth of catfish need supplementary feeding in the form of pellets. The amount of food given as much as 2-5% of the total weight of fish per day that were scattered in the pool. The feeding frequency is 3-4 times every day. While the composition of artificial food can be made from a mixture of fine bran with trash fish mixed with a ratio of 1:9 or fine bran, rice bran, corn, chopped snails with a ratio of 2:1:1:1 mixture can be made form of pellets.
Sangkuriang catfish will reach the size of consumption for 130 days after grown up, with weights between 200-250 grams per fish with a length of 15-20 cm. Harvesting is done by way dampen the pool water. Catfish will gather at kamalir and wallow, so easily captured by using a waring or lambit. Another way of catching is by using bamboo pipes or pipe paralon / bamboo placed based pond, pond water during disurutkan, catfish will be entered into bamboo / paralon, it can easily fish can be captured or removed. Catfish catches were collected in a container in the form of sieve / happa installed in pools where the water continues to flow to be rested before the fish are transported to dipasarkan.Pengangkutan catfish can be done by using cages, fish pole or expanded plastic jerry cans and with surface hole small amount of water.
Production process of enlargement is presented in Table 1. Table 1Proses Sangkuriang catfish enlargement in vessel walls. Criteria for Enlargement Unit
– Age 40 days
– Length cm 4-8
– Weight grams 4-6
– Age 130 days
– Length cm 15-20
– Gram weight 125-200
Survival rate% 80-90
Solid Scatter Ekor/m2 50-75
– Level 3 The% weight
– Frequency of Provision of times / day 3
Feed Conversion Rate from 0.8 to 1.2
Sangkuriang catfish aquaculture activities at the level of farmers are often faced with the problem of sickness or death of fish. On the enlargement of activities, many diseases caused by poor handling of environmental conditions. Organisms predators that normally attack such as snakes and eels. While the organism is a pathogen that often infects Ichthiophthirius sp., Trichodina sp., Monogenea sp. and Dactylogyrus sp.Penanggulangan insect pests can be done by providing a recommended insecticide when filling the water before the seeds are planted. While mitigation can be done with the cleaning eel pond embankment and installation of plastic around kolam.Penanggulangan pathogenic organisms can be done with the cultivation of good environmental management and feeding of regular and sufficient. Treatment can use drugs that direkomendasikan.Pengelolaan environment can be done by the pool with good preparation. In aquaculture activities using ground pool, pond preparation includes drying, reversal of land, perapihan embankment, liming, fertilizing, watering and conditioning the growth of plankton as a food source. In aquaculture activities using the bathtub wall or a plastic tub, pond preparation includes drying, disenfeksi (if necessary), watering and conditioning the growth of plankton as a food source. Improved condition of pool water can also be done with the addition of probiotik.Untuk avoid disease transmission, it should consider the following: Move the immediate fish showing symptoms of illness and treated separately. Fish that appear to have severe should be destroyed. Do not throw away the water used sick fish into waterways. Ponds that have been infected should be dried and carried calcification at a dose of 1 kg / 5 m2. Lime (CaO) scattered evenly based pool, swimming pool left until the soil cracks. Reduce the density of fish in the pond who became ill. Tool catch fish and containers must be maintained so as not contaminated by the disease. Before being used again should be first dipped in a solution of Potassium Permanganate (PK) 20 ppm (1 g in 50 liters of water) or 0.5 ppm chlorine solution (0.5 grams in 1 m3 of water). After holding a sick fish wash our hands with PK solution Clean always bottom of the pool of sludge and residual organic materials Keep your pond always get fresh water or new water. Increase fish food nutrition by adding vitamins to increase the endurance of the fish. BUSINESS ANALYSIS Enlargement catfish in the bathtub plastik1 Sangkuriang. Investment
a. 1-year land lease @ Rp 1.000.000, – = Rp 1.000.000, –
b. Bak plastic plywood 3 units @ Rp 500.000, – = Rp 1.500.000, –
c. Plastic drum 5 pieces @ Rp 150.000, – = Rp 750.000, –
USD 3.25 million, –
2. Fixed Costs
a. Depreciation of land Rp 1.000.000, – / 1 yr = Rp 1.000.000, –
b. Depreciation plywood plastic tub Rp 1.500.000, – / 2 yrs = Rp 750.000, –
c. Depreciation plastic drum Rp 750.000, – / 5 yrs = Rp 150.000, –
USD 1.9 million, –
3. Variable Costs
a. Feed 4800 kg @ Rp 3700 = Rp 17,760,000, –
b. Seeds 5-8 cm size as much as 25,263 head @ Rp 80, – = Rp 2,021,052.63
c. Drugs 6 units @ Rp 50.000, – = Rp 300.000, –
d. Fishing tools 2 packages @ Rp 100.000, – = Rp 200.000, –
e. Labor remains 12 OB @ Rp 250.000, – = Rp 3.000.000, –
f. Other 12 bin @ Rp 100.000, – = Rp 1.200.000, –
4. Total Cost
Fixed Cost + Variable Cost
= Rp 1.9 million, – + Rp 24,281,052.63
= Rp 26,181,052.63
5. Production of catfish consumption of 4800 kg x Rp 6000/kg-Rp 28.8 million,
Production – (Fixed costs + Variable Costs)
= Rp 28,800,000, – – (Rp 1.9 million, – + Rp 24,281,052.63)
= Rp 2,418,947.37
7. Break Event Point (BEP)
Volume production = 4396.84 kg
The production cost = Rp 5496.05
Source: Aquaculture Books Catfish Sangkuriang, Dit. Cultivation, Directorate General of Aquaculture